En samling af japanske ord og fraser - og et par tips til høflig opførsel - som jeg samlede inden vores tur. De er planket fra 8-10 forskellige steder, og jeg beklager meget ikke at kunne udrede de oprindelige ophavsmænd og -kvinder. Anyway.
pasupōto (pah-soo-pohh-toh) (passport)
sūtsukēsu (sooo-tsoo-kehh-soo) (suitcase)
chiketto (chee-keht-toh) (ticket)
yoyaku (yoh-yah-koo) (reservation)
eki (train station)
Chiketto o yoyaku shitai n-desu ga (she-tie-een-des-gah). (I would like to reserve a ticket.)
Tōkyō made no chiketto o ni-mai onegaishimasu. (I would like to purchase two tickets to Tokyo.)
Chiketto wa ikura desu ka. (How much does the ticket cost?)
Konnichiwa (Hi; Good afternoon.)
Ohayō gozaimasu/ Ohayō (Good morning [formal/informal])
Konbanwa (Good evening)
Say Ohayō gozaimasu to your superior instead of Ohayō. And don’t forget to bow when you greet him.
Genki desu ka (How are you?, Are you well?)
Hajimemashite. (How do you do?)
O-genki desu ka. (How are you? [formal])
Genki? (How are you? [informal])
Hai, genki desu. (Yes, I’m fine.)
Ē, māmā desu. (Well, so-so.)
Hai, watashi mo genki desu. (Yes, I’m fine, too.)
Mata ashita. (See you tomorrow.)
Oyasumi nasai. (Good night.)
Say Shitsurei shimasu when you’re parting from your superior. It literal means is “I will be rude,” but the general idea is to say “Excuse my rudeness of leaving you.”
BASALE ORD (HØFLIGHED)
Īe. (no; Oh, it’s nothing.)
Arigatō. (Thanks [informal])
Dōmo arigatō gozaimasu. (Thank you very much.)
Dō itashimashite. (You’re welcome.)
Īe, ii desu. (No, thank you.)
Sumimasen. (I’m sorry.)
Chotto sumimasen. (Excuse me.)
Chotto literally means “a little,” but it’s used to soften the expression in Chotto sumimasen.
Mochiron. (of course)
Ā, sō desu ka. (Oh, I see.)
FORSTÅELSE OG HJÆLP
Nihongo ga wakarimasen. (I don’t understand Japanese.)
Yukkuri onegai shimasu. (Slowly, please.)
Chotto tasukete kudasai. (Help me, please.)
Eigo ga wakarimasu ka. (Do you understand English?)
Chotto wakarimasen. (I don’t know.)
Wakarimasen can mean either “I don’t know” or “I don’t understand.” When you mean I don’t know, add chotto to soften it.
Daijōbu desu ka. (Are you all right?)
Hai, daijōbu desu. (Yes, I’m all right.)
There is supposed to be a package for me, please? 私のためにパッケージがあるようになっている、してください？
How do you ask basic questions in Japanese? Well, Japanese interrogative words mean the same as they do for English: who, what, when, where, why, and how. By knowing basic Japanese interrogatives, you’ll be able to express your questions, even without an extensive vocabulary.
For example, say you’re at a street market and you want find a shirt that you like. You could ask the vendor “Kono shatsu wa ikura desu ka?” (“How much is this shirt?”). But if you don’t know enough vocabulary, you can simply point to the shirt and say “Ikura?” and the seller will understand that you want to know the price.
Dare (dah-reh) (Who)
Nani (nah-nee) (What)
Itsu (ee-tsoo) (When)
Doko (doh-koh) (Where)
Dôshite (dohh-shee-tay) (Why)
Dô (dohh) (How)
Ikaga (ee-kah-gah) (How) Polite form.
Ikura (ee-koo-rah) (How much? How many?)
Dore (doh-reh) (Which one?)
In Japanese, all questions Japanese end in the particle ka. Here’s a look at some different ways to put these question words into a variety useful phrases.
Ano hito wa dare desu ka. (Who is that person over there?)
Kore wa nan desu ka. (What is this?)
Are wa nan desu ka. (What is that over there?)
Are wa Fujisan desu ka. (Is that Mount Fuji?)
O-namae wa nan desu ka. (What is your name?)
Otearai wa doko desu ka. (Where is the restroom?)
Dochira kara kimashita ka. (Where are you from?)
Tanjôbi wa itsu desu ka. (When is your birthday?)
Itsu ikimasu ka. (When will you go [there]?)
Nan-ji ni shimarimasu ka. (What time do you close?)
Densha wa nan-ji nidemasu ka. (At what time does the train leave?)
Chekkuauto wa nan-ji desu ka. (When is checkout time?)
Kore wa ikura desu ka. (How much is this?)
SPISE OG MAD
When you go to a restaurant in Japan, your ueitā [M]/ueitoresu [F] (waiter/waitress) will give you a menyuu (menu) and ask you what you’d like to order by saying Go-chūmon wa. To order something, say Name of item o onegaishimasu (I would like the Name of item, please). The following list might help.
niku (nee-koo) (meat)
butaniku (boo-tah-nee-koo) (pork)
gyūniku (gyooo-nee-koo) (beef)
ringo (reen-goh) (apple)
sarada (sah-rah-dah) (salad)
toriniku (toh-ree-nee-koo) (chicken)
sakana (sah-kah-nah) (fish)
tamago (tah-mah-goh) (eggs)
yasai (yah-sah-ee) (vegetables)
kudamono (koo-dah-moh-noh) (fruit)
dezāto (deh-zahh-toh) (dessert)
gohan (goh-hahn) (cooked rice)
aisu kurīmu (ah-ee-soo koo-reee-moo) (ice cream)
chīzu (cheee-zoo) (cheese)
sūpu (sooo-poo) (soup)
pan (pahn) (bread)
bīru (beee-roo) (beer)
kōhī (kohh-heee) (coffee)
jūsu (jooo-soo) (juice
gyūnyū (gyooo-nyooo) (milk)
o-cha (oh-chah) (tea)
wain (wah-een) (wine)
mizu (mee-zoo) (water)
o-kanjō (oh-kan-jooo) (check)
chippu (cheep-poo) (tip)
*ryōshūsho (ryohh-shooo-shoh) (receipt)
Sukiyaki o onegaishimasu. (I would like to have sukiyaki, please.)
O-nomimono wa. (How about a beverage?)
Bīru o onegaishimasu. (Beer, please.)
Orenji jūsu wa arimasu ka. (Do you serve orange juice?)
O-mizu o kudasai. (I would like some water, please.)
Donna yasai ryōri ga ka. (What kind of vegetables do you have?)
Donna sakana ryōri ga arimasu ka. (What kind of fish is available?)
Kyō no supesharu wa nan desu ka. (What is today’s special?)
Dōzo meshiagatte kudasai. (Please eat.)
Mō sukoshi onegaishimasu. (May I have some more?)
Kōhī ni wa miruku to satō o onegaishimasu. (I would like milk and sugar for my coffee.)
Ii desu ka. (Is it okay?)
Hai, ii desu. (Yes, it’s fine.)
Yoyaku o shitai n-desu ga. (I would like to make a reservation.)
O-kanjō onegaishimasu. (Check please.)
After eating, try to move all your dishes back to the same position they were at the start of the meal. This includes replacing the lids on dishes and putting your chopsticks on the chopstick holder or back into their paper slip.
Hold the rice bowl in one hand and the chopsticks in the other. Lift the bowl towards your mouth while eating. Do not pour soya sauce over white, cooked rice.
Pour some soya sauce into the small dish provided. It is considered bad manners to waste soya sauce, so try not to pour more sauce than you will use.
You do not need to add wasabi into the soya sauce, because the sushi pieces may already contain it, or may be eaten plain. However, if you choose to add wasabi, use only a small amount so as not to offend the sushi chef. If you do not like wasabi, you can request that none is added into your sushi.
In general, you are supposed to eat a sushi piece in one bite. Attempts to separate a piece into two generally end in the destruction of the beautifully prepared sushi. Hands or chopsticks can be used to eat sushi.
Pour some soya sauce into the small dish provided. Put some wasabi on the sashimi piece, but be careful not to use too much as this will overpower the taste of the fish. Dip the sashimi pieces into the soya sauce. Some types of sashimi are enjoyed with ground ginger rather than wasabi.
Drink the soup out of the bowl as if it were a cup, and fish out the solid food pieces with your chopsticks.
Hittakuri ni aimashita. (I’ve been robbed.)
Keisatsu o yonde kudasai. (Please call the police.)
To ask for a doctor say isha.
To ask for a hospital say byōin.
To call for an ambulance say kyuu-kyuu desu.
To get medicine as for yakkyoku.
To ask for a nurse say kangoshi.
Once you are able to talk to the right person, you can use the following words to explain what’s wrong.
ishiki fumei (unconscious)
The following phrases might come in handy during an emergency.
Tasukete kudasai. (Please help!)
Chotto wakarimasen. (I don’t know.)
Iki ga dekimasen. (I can’t breathe.)
Byōin wa doko desu ka. (Where is a hospital?)
Kyūkyūsha o yonde kudasai. (Please call the ambulance.)
SKIKKE OG OPFØRSEL
- You will receive a small wet cloth at most Japanese restaurants. Use this to wash your hands before eating, then carefully fold it and set it aside on the table. Do not use it as a napkin, or to touch any part of your face.
- Just before digging in, whether it be a seven-course dinner or a sample at a supermarket, it’s polite to say “itadakimasu” (I will receive).
Take off your shoes at the entrance to all homes, and most businesses and hotels. Usually a rack will be provided to store your shoes, and pair of guest slippers will be sitting nearby; many Japanese bring a pair of indoor slippers just in case, though.
Never wear slippers when you need to step onto a tatami mat (used in most Japanese homes and hotels; the standard unit of measurement for area even today), and be careful to remove the toilet slippers waiting for you in the bathroom.
Japanese like bathing in (very) hot water (40 to 50 degrees celsius). If it is too hot for you, you can add a bit of cold water, but not as much as it becomes tepid, or the next person won’t appreciate it.
In public baths, do not mistake men and women’s changing rooms, as it is extremely impolite, even if you really mistook. The men’s room are usually on the left, and normally has a blue curtain with “otoko” (男) or dono-sama (殿様) written on it. The women’s room is usually on the right, with a red curtain reading “onna” (女). If you are not sure, ask !
Absolutely avoid bathing suits in public baths, as this could create incidents with Japanese customers and you could end up expelled from the premises.
Tattoos are banned in most public baths. If you have one, you should consult the staff at reception beforehand to avoid causing trouble.
Although the situation has improved considerably in recent decades, toilet paper is not always provided in public washrooms. Therefore, it is recommended to carry a small package of tissues. Similarly, because paper towels or dryers are not always provided, it is recommended to carry a handkerchief.
When using the washroom in a private home, minshuku or ryokan, you will often find toilet slippers for exclusive use inside the washroom. Leave your usual slippers outside the washroom, and do not forget to change back into them, afterwards, to avoid an often committed cultural faux pas.
Blowing your nose in public, and especially at the table, is considered bad manners.